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The thermal springs at Pamukkale which give rise to these geological phenomena cover a wide area. In this area, there are several hot water springs which have a temperature between 35 and 100 degrees. The thermal springs of Pamukkale form an integral part of the regions potential for tourism and have been popular since ancient times. The water, having emerged from the spring, is transported 320 m to the head of the travertines and deposits itself on a section 60 to 70 meters long covering an expanse of 240 to 300 meters square.
When the water first comes out of the ground it is about 35.6 ºC . The water includes calcium hydro carbonate in a big quantity. When it contacts with oxygen, the carbon dioxide and carbonmonoxide escapes and the calcium carbonate settles and forms the travertine. The sediment is jelly-like in the first stage.
The chemical reaction is: Ca (HCO3) + O2 CaCO+CO2+H2O
The travertines are not in contact with water every time as it is seen on the photos. The photos are taken when the pools are full of water because of its beauties. That is why they are supposed to be full with water all the time. The thermal water is given to the travertines by controlled programme. If the water flows on the same place for along time, it causes moss and pollutes the white travertines. The travertine's area should be dried for certain times to prevent this pollution and to let the jelly-like sediment harden. It is forbidden to walk on the travertines owing to being smooth and broken easily in the first stage of the formation. But the areas are constructed to provide tourists to meet water. These are the artificial pools which are formed on the former road and the area of 5000 square meters which is established on the southern gate